Computer Organisation & Architecture

Computer Architecture and Organisation

Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinComputer  architecture It refers to those attributes of a system visible to a programmer or those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program.   Computer organization It refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. Examples of architectural attributes include the instruction set, the number of bits used to represent various data types (e.g., numbers, characters), I/O mechanisms, and techniques for addressing memory. Organizational


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedin ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture. A ROM, stores such instruction as are required to start computer when electricity is first turned on, this operation is referred to as bootstrap. ROM chip are not only used in the computer

Half adder & Full Adder

Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedin Adder: A combinational circuit that performs the addition of binary bits. Half Adder Half adder is a combinational logic circuit with two inputs and two outputs. The half adder circuit is designed to add two single bit binary number A and B. It is the basic building block for addition of two single bit numbers. This circuit has two outputs carry and sum. Block Diagram Based on the

RISC and CISC Processors

Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinRISC Processor It is known as Reduced Instruction Set Computer. It is a type of microprocessor that has a limited number of instructions. They can execute their instructions very fast because instructions are very small and simple. RISC chips require fewer transistors which make them cheaper to design and produce. In RISC, the instruction set contains simple and basic instructions from which more complex instruction can be produced. Most


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinA memory unit is the collection of storage units or devices together. The memory unit stores the binary information in the form of bits.It is used to store data and instruction. Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into large number of small parts. Each part is called a cell. Each


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinA computer consists of a set of components or modules of three basic types (processor, memory, I/O) that communicate with each other. In effect, a computer is a network of basic modules. Thus, there must be paths for connecting the modules. The collection of paths connecting the various modules is called the interconnection structure. The design of this structure will depend on the exchanges that must be made among modules. Figure below suggests the


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinInterrupt processing within a processor is a facility provided to support the operating system. It allows an application program to be suspended, in order that a variety of interrupt conditions can be serviced and later resumed. INTERRUPTS AND EXCEPTIONS An interrupt is generated by a signal from hardware, and it may occur at random times during the execution of a program. An exception is generated from software, and it is provoked by the


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinBUS A bus is a  communication pathway connecting two or more devices. A key characteristic of a bus is that it is a shared transmission medium. Multiple devices connect to the bus, and a signal transmitted by any one device is available for reception by all other devices attached to the bus. If two devices transmit during the same time period, their signals will overlap and become garbled. Thus, only one device at


Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedin   1. The First Generation:Vacuum Tubes ENIAC The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), designed and constructed at the University of Pennsylvania, was the world’s first generalpurpose electronic digital computer.The project was a response to U.S. needs during World War II.The Army’s Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL), an agency responsible for developing range and trajectory tables for new weapons, was having difficulty supplying these tables accurately and within a reasonable time frame. Without these firing

Functions of a Computer

Share this…FacebookTwitterLinkedinThere are four basic functions of Computer system . They are as follows : • Data processing • Data storage • Data movement • Control Data processing: The computer must be able to process data.The data may take a wide variety of forms, and the range of processing requirements is broad. Data storage:  It is also essential that a computer store data. Even if the computer is processing data on the